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Additional details and rarities
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 23 Mar 2020, 12:27.

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9. Genders
18. Ov anthem
19. Phonology
20. Sentences
23. Tones
28. WIP
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Menu 1. Optional comparative marking 2. Archaic dual form 3. rVr structures 4. On V1 5. Some counterintuitive uses of declensions and idiotisms 6. Frequencies 7. « u » vs « u fa » 8. Ironic negation 9. One of them… 10. Narrative style 11. A neat list of Ov sayings

Some peculiarities of Ov are too specific or too rarely applied to deserve the attention of the learner at first.

[top]Optional comparative marking


The -l comparee affix makes the comparative marking on the adjective optional.

U mëntézyn guv wöyszanalCOPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
sharp eye razor-than
the eye is sharper than the razor (literally: the eye is sharp than the razor)


[top]Archaic dual form


There is an archaic dual suffix that is usable in formal contexts. Only words of the plosive harmony ending with VCVC in the plural can take it.

  • tdönkind
  • tdönökkinds
  • tdönökśtwo kinds


[top]rVr structures


rVr (where V stands for any vowel) is phonotactically forbidden; should an inflection yield it (typically 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
conjugations), it will be turned into lVr.

  • kownír = to abandon
  • *kowníror = he abandons (theoretically regular but ungrammatical)
  • kownílor = he abandons


This applies accross word boundaries as well, although this wasn't the case before the late 19th century.

  • cyp ör = to slow down
  • *cypyr ör = he slows down
  • cypyl ör = he slows down


[top]On V1


Ov strongly enforces VSO word order when there are consecutive verbs, which turns every verb into an auxiliary for the final verb, even if they are not basically connected (example below). This is called a verbal chain (śtoeaniösan).

« If there is a search for it, then I have something I can believe in »
translates as:
« Vys mair płä kgi iöps, krohst os sois neízyk ëka kgi iöps »
which is glossed as:
if be-there-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
search it about, then have-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
can-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
believe-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
something it about


This literally translates as:
« If there is a search it about, then I have I can believe something about »

And, if we cancel the way adpositions work in Ov:
« If there is a search about it, then I have I can believe about something »

Finally, by cancelling this word order enforcement, we illustrate how it works:
« If there is a search about it, then I have something I can believe about »

Also, keep in mind that auxiliaries trigger subjunctive in the following verb, and since both "have" and "can" are made auxiliaries in this sentence, all the following verbs are subjunctive-inflected. The reason why "have" is subjunctive is different though: this is triggered by the subordinate clause.

[top]Some counterintuitive uses of declensions and idiotisms


  • In the following weekskakplöiësar sömök (week-INSInstrumental (case)
    'with', 'using'
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    next-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • It is 39% more likelyu fa lëntyhnean nałripik erroiën im el
  • It is 10 meters highu fa nähs łitónto oiën (COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    -ADJZAdjectiviser (syntax)
    turns word into adjective
    high metre-INSInstrumental (case)
    'with', 'using'
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    ten
    )
  • Divided by x (and other mathematical operations) → divided x with
  • In the direction of xx.INSInstrumental (case)
    'with', 'using'
  • We / Us threeśias el gyn (1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .TOTTotal
    all/every
    three of
    )


[top]Frequencies


Ov manages frequencies in an interesting way.

iér kaktaktime day-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
once a day

iér tongnaszttaktime month-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
once a month


iérek ät kaktaktime-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
two in-day
twice a day

iérek ät tongnaszttaktime-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
two month-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
twice a month


iérek ät kak ístime-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
two day out-of
twice in two days

iérek ät tongnaszt ístime-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
two month out-of
twice in two months


What happens here is that the numeral is not repeated, impliedly applying to both nouns. The noun can be pluralized so as to neutralize ambiguity.

iérek ät kyk el ís * → time-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
two day three out-of
twice in three days

iérek ät tongnaszt el ístime-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
two month three out-of
twice in three days


(* « kyk » is an irregular plural)

[top]« u » vs « u fa »

U fa is the variant of "u" used before a single adjective.

U wäi astbe cat beautifulthe cat is beautiful
U fa astbe beautifulit is beautiful

[top]Ironic negation


Interronegatives don't exist in Ov, with the exception of ironic negations like « ain't it nice » which are rendered by a negation followed by « kyś ».

[top]One of them…


The ”one of them” structure is translated with the numeral only. In that case, it is always situated at the beginning of a sentence, overriding the expected word order.

ät nonkuk iwtwo <PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
>give out
Two (of them) are reported


When the numeral is one, the singulative particle ”ibl” is used.

ibl nondruk iwSGVSingulative (number)
'one piece of the whole'
<PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
>give out
One (of them) is reported


The determiner "other" has its own unvariant singulative form "oił".

[top]Narrative style


Where English would say "he claimed" or "said he" in a narrative style, Ov would simply put "so" before a verb in the future tense.

Plapla, céd sparanblabla, so say-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
Blabla, he said.


[top]A neat list of Ov sayings


O śköblar swahnok unk.
O śköblar swahnok unk.
/o̞ skʏɫ̪ɑɾ ɕvɑːno̞k uŋk/
There's a sheep in my coffee = there's something wrong
(can be used with a complement followed by "kgä" to mark the topic)


Amlíliä cyhs blëiszan nev pea slont ol bela mohrwöuszëł.
Amlíliä cyhs blëiszan nev pea slont ol bela mohrwöuszëł.
/ɑliːʝæ θyːɕ ɫ̪e̞ɪ̯sɑn ne̞f pɤ ɕlo̞nt o̞l be̞lɑ moːɾvʏwsɪç/
It's better to know for sure it rains on you than to believe it's sunny at the world's tail = a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush


Swaiësztan víbl aszm öf oun noszëł.
Swaiësztan víbl aszm öf oun noszëł.
/ɕvɑɪ̯stɑn viːɫ̪ ɑsm ʏf o̞wn no̞sɪç/
You're precious as a marble of air in space = said to someone negligible in appearance but who turns out to be extremely useful, without whom even great things couldn't be accomplished


Urvytín öyswa!
Urvytín öyswa!
/urvʏtiːn yːɕvɑ/
Milk would blush! = said when something shocking but funny has just been said, typically accidentally by a child


Kuhartsał winilyr!
Kuhartsał winilyr!
/kuːɑrt͡ɕɑx vɪnɪlʏɾ/
Your heart moved = You're blushing hard
(the "to move" verb used here is that of changing residence; the possession is expressed through the construct case so the person this adresses is virtually anyone)


Ar mibkik Temaskasan.
Ar mibkik Temaskasan.
/ɑɾ mɪbkɪk te̞mɑɕk(ɑ)ɕɑn/
S/He is in the fogs of the Temaska river = S/He is not born yet / s/he is to be born
(calqued from a regional french idiom)


Lar öyf kgi.
Lar öyf kgi.
/lɑɾ yːf kɪ/
The wind keeps it = Rumor has it


Bair língäs ékglumea.
Bair língäs ékglumea.
/bɑɪ̯ɾ liːŋæɕ e̞ɪ̯klumɤ/
I can bring my own = I can play my role.


Ovnel ënkovnel.
Ovnel ënkovnel.
/o̞vne̞l ɪŋko̞vne̞l/
What's done won't be to be done.


Tdunur zahlyryl yhalcciaus.
Tdunur zahlyryl yhalcciaus.
/tunuɾ t͡ɕɑːlʏɾʏl yːɑlθjɑwɕ/
It makes as much sense as an equatorial winter.


Mulur kgan kgäipi läszsa.
Mulur kgan kgäipi läszsa.
/muluɾ kɑn kæɪ̯pɪ læsɕɑ/
The sky opens for me = I'm very tired/sleepy


Urplinoun dohlírok.
Urplinoun dohlírok.
/urɫ̪ɪno̞wn doːliːɾo̞k/
You made my words shy = I'm very flattered


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