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Irregularities
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 7 Sep 2019, 23:33.

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9. Genders
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19. Phonology
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23. Tones
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Menu 1. Patterned irregularities (-am / -ar / -läm / -ó nouns) 2. Noun allomorphy in the syntactic declensions 3. Noun allomorphy in the semantic declensions 4. Adjective allomorphy 5. Weather verbs

All good languages have irregularities. It's not the funniest part to get into… or isn't it? Either way, here is a sum up.

[top]Patterned irregularities (-am / -ar / -läm / -ó nouns)


Nouns ending in -am, -ar, -läm and (the latter in the plosive harmony only) are irregular, but they follow a predictable pattern. This happens in different ways to all paradigms.

For reference, the regular paradigms are reproduced here.


ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-∅-sa
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-Vs-(a)f
INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
-iauś-ious
TOTTotal
all/every
-iaus-iauc
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-∅-Vt
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-Vk-Vm
INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
-iot-iout
TOTTotal
all/every
-iat-iak
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-∅-Vë
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-Vk-Vr
INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
-ior-iou
TOTTotal
all/every
-iar-iau


-ar class (null harmony)


ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-∅-(y)lyr
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-(e)ler-(y)lyn
INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
-(a)lahr-(a)lvar
TOTTotal
all/every
-(i)lihr-(y)lvyr


  • guhar → guharler (adaptation → adaptations)
  • star → stylyr (state → states-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    )


-am class (plosive harmony)


ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-∅-on
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ok-om
INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
-iod-iot
TOTTotal
all/every
-iad-ian


  • örłam → örłok (hero → heroes)
  • am → on (thing → thing-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    )


-läm class


The word läm, meaning "place", has irregular ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
and ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
. This pattern works for all of its derivations.

ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-∅-lém
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-Vk-lím
INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
-iot-iout
TOTTotal
all/every
-iat-iak


class (plosive harmony only)


ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-∅-out
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-oga-oum
INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
-ahga-iót
TOTTotal
all/every
-óga-ók


  • fyhnkgó → fyhnkgoga (electric fan → electric fans)
  • gönó → gönout (omelette → omelette-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    )


[top]Noun allomorphy in the syntactic declensions


Allomorphy is a class of expected irregularities in certain environments. Each case of allomorphy implies a conditional regular transformation.

Note that throughout the phenomena of allomorphy, assonantal endings cannot reproduce long vowels; they are reduced to their short counterpart (ex. 1 and 9).

Any harmony

  • Occurrences of ‹ii› will be rewritten ‹í› in the plosive and fricative harmonies (ex. 2 and 3), but will be reduced to ‹i› in the null harmony (ex. 4).


Fricative harmony

  • The NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    and NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    forms of nouns in the fricative harmony turn ‹ea› (considered one vowel phonologically) to ‹a› if followed by the last consonant of the word (ex. 5);
  • any occurrence of ‹ss› becomes ‹ś~sz› (ex. 6);
  • any occurrence of ‹łs› becomes ‹ss› (ex. 7).


Null harmony

  • Words ending in will have their ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    unchanged (ex. 8).


Examples

  • 1. płíc → *płícís → płícis (coal → coals)
  • 2. łezki → *łezkiiot → łezkíot (friend → friend-INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
    word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
    )
  • 3. vorantepłi → *vorantepłiiauś → vorantepłíauś (accent → accent-INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
    word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
    )
  • 4. ai → *aiior → aior (cartridge → cartridge-INDIDIndefinite ideal (class)
    word pertains to an indefinite (a/an/any) ideal or concept of something
    )
  • 5. ełorgean → *ełorgeaneak → ełorgeanak (accuser → accusers)
  • 6. urnës → *urnëssa → urnësza (abolition → abolition-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    )
  • 7. woł → *wołsa → wossa (armpit → armpit-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    )
  • 8. eruië→ *eruiëë → eruië (arm → arm-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    )


[top]Noun allomorphy in the semantic declensions


Fricative harmony

  • This paradigm undergoes various simplifications: ‹sś → ś›, ‹łs → s›, ‹vs → s›, ‹szś → ś›, ‹szs → s› and ‹ss → s› (ex. 9, 10, 11 and 12);
  • syncope (removal of a syllable) also happens in szVszV and szVsV environments that both become szzV (in other words, a vowel is removed if between ‹sz- -sz› or ‹sz- -s›, if followed by a vowel) (ex. 13);
  • ‹ëë → ë› (ex. 14)


Plosive harmony

  • Occurrences of ‹ngnk› are reduced to ‹nk› (ex. 15).


Null harmony

  • Occurrences of ‹blr› or ‹plr› are reduced to ‹r› (ex. 16);
  • occurrences of ‹bll,pll› are replaced by ‹bl,pl› (ex. 17).


Examples

  • 9. urnës → *urnësś → urnës (abolition-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 10. urnës → *urnëss → urnës (abolition-BENBenefactive (case)
    recipient of benefit
    or abolition-INSInstrumental (case)
    'with', 'using'
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 11. śweł → *śwełś → śwes (board-INSInstrumental (case)
    'with', 'using'
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 12. rav → *ravsaf → rasaf (baby-INEInessive (case)
    'inside'
    )
  • 13. käszi → *käsziszaf → käszzaf (nipple-INEInessive (case)
    'inside'
    )
  • 14. vésën→ *vésëntëë → vésëntë (enemy-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    (.PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
    )
  • 15. tungn → *tungnkut → tunkut (dessert → dessert-ECTSEctessive (case)
    outside of
    )
  • 16. räbl → *räblr → *rärlär (disease → disease-BENBenefactive (case)
    recipient of benefit
    ; this also undergoes the rVr → lVr mandatory change)
  • 17. räbl → *räbller → räbler (disease → disease-INEInessive (case)
    'inside'
    )


[top]Adjective allomorphy


Fricative harmony

  • This paradigm undergoes various simplifications: ‹sś → ś›, ‹szś → ś›, ‹zz → z›, ‹sss → ss›, ‹zz → z› and ‹sztszz → szz› (also ‹sz → z› word-finally) (ex. 19, 20 and 21);
  • in the POSIPositive (class)
    standard adjective
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    form, if a word winds up ending in -zś, it is infixed with the assonantal vowel (ex. 22).


Null harmony

  • ‹rz› becomes ‹z› (ex. 23).


Examples

  • 18. wém → *wémék → wémek (alright → alright-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 19. lougviś → *lougviszś → lougviś (advanced → advanced-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 20. zmuräus → *zmuräuszs → zmuräuś (allergic → allergic-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 21. yhz → *yhzz → yhz (charming → charming-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 22. az → *azś → azaś (conscious → conscious-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )
  • 23. ohr → *ohrz → ohz (broad → broad-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    )


[top]Weather verbs


Weather verbs only exist in the third person. This form is irregular, usually displaying metathesis.

  • śök → *śökör → śörk (to rain → it rains)
  • bela → *belar → berra (to be sunny → it is sunny)
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