cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Verb morphology
1▲ 1 ▼ 0
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 16 Feb 2020, 16:08.

[comments]
9. Genders
18. Ov anthem
19. Phonology
20. Sentences
23. Tones
28. WIP
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Menu 1. Active voice 2. Passive voice 3. Moods 4. Relative clauses and verbal agreement 5. Clausal focus 6. Other clauses 7. Conjunctions that trigger the subjunctive 8. Interrogations 9. Satellite framed verbs

This is going to be the actual trickiest part of Ov. The verb morphology is a mess, but don't worry, it all makes sense in the end, and the lesson is full of sentient cats and weird wishes – that should help you make your way through this jargon-heavy article. Good luck!

Ov verbs don't distinguish consonantal harmonies. They are distinguished mostly between a simple tense system (PREPresent, PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
, FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
) and the six persons known to English (1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
, 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
, 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
, 1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
, 2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
, 3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
).

[top]Active voice


The present tense of the active voice is straightforward, following the paradigm indicated below. You will expect assonantal endings like in nouns.

PREPresentPASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-s-in- -s-sVn
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-n-in- -n-nVn
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-r-in- -r-rVn
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
-in- -ś-szVn
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
-m-in- -m-mVn
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-k-in- -k-kVn


The past tense uses infixes, as seen also in adjectives.

Note on verbal assonantal endings: the pattern is different for each tense:
  • the present tense will use the first vowel of the word as its assonance;
  • the past tense will also use the first vowel of the word, but because the past tense infix has changed it, it will always be <i>;
  • the future tense uses the last vowel of the word as its assonance.


  • nuksar = to allocate
  • nuksarus = I allocate
  • ninuksaris = I allocated / I have allocated
  • nuksarsan = I will allocate


This illustrates very well how Ov can get extremely assonantal.

[top]Passive voice


The passive voice is, in fact, the easiest part of Ov verbal morphology, because the paradigm is entirely made of regular infixes unaffected by harmonies nor assonantal endings. The paradigm also ressembles that of the active voice.

PREPresentPASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-ons--uns--ans-
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-ond--und--and-
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-ondr--undr--andr-
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
-onsz--unsz--ansz-
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
-onm--unm--anm-
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-onk--unk--ank-


  • nonsuksar = I am allocated
  • nunsuksar = I was allocated / I have been allocated
  • nansuksar = I will be allocated


[top]Moods


Ov has a set of four moods: CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
(now outdated), NEGNegative (polarity)
not
, SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
and IMPImperative (mood)
command
(rare, usually supplanted by the subjunctive). All the moods agree with the voice (PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
/ACTActive voice (valency, volition)
the subject acts, voluntarily
) and the subjunctive has PREPresent and NPRSNon-present (tense)
time other than now
forms. The pattern is regular.

CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
.PREPresent
SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
.NPRSNon-present (tense)
time other than now
IMPImperative (mood)
command
ACTActive voice (valency, volition)
the subject acts, voluntarily
ur--ënk--i--aiv--ikg
PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
or--ënkon--oiv--ovn--ikg


  • nënkusaras = I don't allocate
  • nuiksaras = I allocate-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
  • ornuksar = to cause to be allocated


The SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
is triggered in two situations: on a verb or an auxiliary following an auxiliary, and in verbs introducing a relative clause.

Because the SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
is often used as an imperative, the actual IMPImperative (mood)
command
mood gets used more and more for formal and polite suggestions.

[top]Relative clauses and verbal agreement


Important note on auxiliaries: in Ov, an auxiliary is not just a modal verb; it is any verb put in front of another for any syntactic or modal reason. This conception originates from the agreement rules as seen below. The glosses highlight the morphology of each word.

  • iócis nuiksar = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    >
    = I want to allocate


This section explains the functioning of relative clauses because they generally involve the future tense and are widely regarded as a phenomenon of verbal morphology, especially because the agreement rules within them can get pretty complicated.

It is worth noting beforehand that relative clauses can, in fact, be handled the same way as in English, with two minor exceptions: the verb introducing the clause is in the SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
and some relative pronouns may differ from their adverbial/interrogative form.

  • iócis ong noivuksar = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    that allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    = I want that it be allocated
  • iócis cyhs ler novnuksar = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    know-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    when(RELRelative) allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    (and not iócis cyhs *luś novnuksar) = I want to know when it was allocated


The more natural way of forming a relative clause is to put the subject in the ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
and the verb inside the clause in the FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
. Of course, the ergative doesn't show if the subject is only specified in the auxiliary's ending (as in the first example below).

  • iócis novnuksar = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    = I want that it be allocated
  • iócir wäisa novnuksar = want-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    cat-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    = The cat wants that it be allocated


While the future tense inside the clause is purely morphological, the tense of the auxiliary remains the reflect of the tense the speaker intends to use; this is why it is important that the noun separates the auxiliary from the verb in the relative clause. The second-to-last example make just as little sense as in English and is used here as a mere illustration.

  • iócson novnuksar = want-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    = I will want that it be allocated
  • ióclin wäisa novnuksar = want-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    cat-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    = The cat will want that it be allocated
  • iócos ohns wei = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    have(SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    ) cat-ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    = I want to have a cat in the future
  • iócson ohns wei = want-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    have(SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    ) cat-ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    = I will want to have a cat


Because an auxiliary triggers SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
and a relative clause FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
, it is important to keep in mind that relative clauses will trigger SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
.NPRSNon-present (tense)
time other than now
at all times
. The voice distinction can still be made. Without the future tense, the sentence is clauseless.

  • Ccaras aiviócir novnuksar = know-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    want<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    >-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    = I know that he wants to be allocated
  • Iócis íóc noivuksar = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    want<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    > allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >
    = I want to want to be allocated


Note on perfectivity in relative clauses: since the past tense is by definition forbidden in relative clauses, as they already trigger the future tense, and given the fact that the past tense is the only vector of perfectivity, the aspect has to be carried on adverbially in relative clauses.

  • iócis novnuksar łël = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    > then
    = I want that it was allocated (I want that it be allocated then)
  • iócis novnuksar dyr = want-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    > then(FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    )
    = I want that it will be allocated (I want that it be allocated then)


At this point, registers of formality also come into play. First off, an agreement of both the auxiliary/-ies and the verb with the person is hardly seen in informal speech. But the informal speech also tends to drop the ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
. Both phenomena can occur separately, but the agreement is much more easily dropped than the ergative.

  • Both the ergative and the agreement dropped, very colloquial:

    • iócir wäi novnuksar = want-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      cat allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      .NPRSNon-present (tense)
      time other than now
      .PASSPassive voice (valency)
      be verb-ed
      >
      = the cat that wants to be allocated


  • Only the agreement dropped, colloquial:

    • iócir wäisa novnuksar = want-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      cat-ERGErgative (case)
      TRANS subject; agent
      allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      .NPRSNon-present (tense)
      time other than now
      .PASSPassive voice (valency)
      be verb-ed
      >
      = the cat that wants to be allocated


  • Only the ergative dropped, unseen:

    • *iócir wäi novnuksalur = want-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      cat allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      .NPRSNon-present (tense)
      time other than now
      .PASSPassive voice (valency)
      be verb-ed
      >-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      = the cat that wants to be allocated


  • Neither the ergative nor the agreement dropped, formal or literary:

    • iócir wäisa novnuksalur = want-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      cat-ERGErgative (case)
      TRANS subject; agent
      allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      .NPRSNon-present (tense)
      time other than now
      .PASSPassive voice (valency)
      be verb-ed
      >-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      = the cat that wants to be allocated



The person is mandatorily specified in the clause verb if it differs from that of the auxiliary.

  • iócir wäi naivuksarun = want-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    cat allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    >-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    = the cat wants you to be allocated (the cat wants that you be allocated)


If you've followed up to this point, you might have noticed that while the suffixal paradigm is the same for the past and present tenses, the future tense paradigm differs quite a bit. This causes the suffixal paradigm of the auxiliary/-ies to align on the past/present tense suffixal paradigm. Using the future tense paradigm is allowed but deprecated.

  • Wäisa ióclin novnuksalur = cat-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    want-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    = the cat that will want to be allocated
  • Wäisa ióclin novnuksalurun = cat-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    want-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    = the cat that will want to be allocated


All these examples would have worked the same with the active subjunctive infix instead of the passive one.

As a conclusion, note that the difference between a single clause and a clause + subclause compound relies much on word ordering.

  • Wäisa ióclin novnuksalur = cat-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    want-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    = the cat that will want to be allocated
  • Ióclin novnuksalur wäi = want-FUTFuture (tense)
    action occurring after the moment of speech
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    allocate<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    cat
    = the cat will want to be allocated


[top]Clausal focus


Note where the relative ergative is triggered (the underlined noun) in the following sentences. In the first one, the ergative is on the noun that is contained within the clause, while it is marked in the second sentence on the noun that introduces the relative clause. This is called clausal focus.

  • Blënkar wondruisztimut tdun gufaivorś vom snyhk ënkok ök oivolgeanak läszccoiëlër = <NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    >touch-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    location-POSSGPossessed (case)
    marks being owned
    .3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    -ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    logic obvious and even <NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    >be_there-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    sign-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    >occupy-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    ship-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    = there is no obvious logic to their locations and no evidence that the ships are even occupied
  • Cob ok agyhmym nënkovnovoszok tän maivängäk kcaiëtiuhsëł = so_far be_there-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    <CARDCardinal
    1, 2, 3, etc
    >object-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    <NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    ><SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    .NPREUnknown code>identify-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    twelve <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .NPRSNon-present (tense)
    time other than now
    >spread-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    planet-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    = so far, there are 12 unidentified objects (that are) spread across the globe


The clausal focus can be summarized in the following rule:
  • a relative clause always triggers an ergative; by default, it is triggered on the first noun contained within the clause (typically in a noun-modifying clause such as the first one above), otherwise it is triggered on the noun that introduces it (typically in a verb-modifying clause such as the second one above).


  • [top]Other clauses


    A negative clause can be constructed synthetically with rong + SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    .

    • Cösös rong seit kgiknow-1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      RELRelative.NEGNegative (polarity)
      not
      <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      >like it →
      I know that I don't like it


    A causal or resultative clause cannot get verbs to stack since both have to be clearly linked to one another. It is formed with kgä as a relative pronoun followed by a verb in the CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
    cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
    .SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    . It is interesting to highlight, as shown by the literal translations, how this morphologically confuses cause and result.

    • Ninukis ios am kgä urkuíntiwënkur kgei<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      >give-1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      3MThird person masculine (person)
      he/they
      .BENBenefactive (case)
      recipient of benefit
      everything that(CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
      cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
      ) CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
      cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
      <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      >leave_alone-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      .ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      I gave him everything so that he leaves me alone

      Literally: I gave him everything so that he leaves me alone
    • Ninukis ios łour kgä urkahvuitiwënkur kgei<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      >give-1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      3MThird person masculine (person)
      he/they
      .BENBenefactive (case)
      recipient of benefit
      so_much that(CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
      cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
      ) CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
      cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
      <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      .NPRSNon-present (tense)
      time other than now
      >leave_alone-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      .ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      I gave him so much that he left me alone

      Literally: I gave him so much so that he left me alone


    Unlike other clauses, a causal or resultative clause does not trigger the ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    .
    • Finohlis smeorpbitiävëkkyt łour kgä urcoivypyl ör iem maszz<PSTPast (tense)
      action occurred before moment of speech
      >spend-1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      virtual_relationship-ECTSEctessive (case)
      outside of
      .PLPlural (number)
      more than one/few
      so_much that(CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
      cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
      ) CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
      cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
      <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      .NPRSNon-present (tense)
      time other than now
      >freeze-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      around time real →
      I spent so much time in virtual relationships that the real time slowed down


    Another more literary way (now deprecated in everyday speech because it changes word ordering and gets verbs too close together to not cause ambiguities) is to have ułlea to introduce a simple subjunctive clause followed by a clause that contains the cause.

    • Ułlea kuíntiwënkur kgei ninukis ios am<SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      >so_that <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      >leave_alone-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      .ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      <PSTPast (tense)
      action occurred before moment of speech
      >give-1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      3MThird person masculine (person)
      he/they
      .BENBenefactive (case)
      recipient of benefit
      everything →
      I gave him everything so that he leaves me alone

    • Literally: so that he leaves me alone I gave him everything
    • Ułlea kohvuintiwënkur kgei ninukis ios łourso_that <SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      .NPRSNon-present (tense)
      time other than now
      >leave_alone-3SThird person singular (person)
      neither speaker nor addressee
      1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      .ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      <PSTPast (tense)
      action occurred before moment of speech
      >give-1SFirst person singular (person)
      speaker, signer, etc.; I
      3MThird person masculine (person)
      he/they
      .BENBenefactive (case)
      recipient of benefit
      so_much →
      I gave him so much so that he left me alone

      Literally: so that he left me alone I gave him so much


    [top]Conjunctions that trigger the subjunctive


    It might seem unclear which conjunctions trigger the subjunctive on the clause they introduce. This used to be irregular before the 1971 reform uniformized the rule and made it clear that only conjunctions that denote a change of state (accomplished or ongoing) trigger the subjunctive, whereas mere factual ("reporting") conjunctions don't.

    • Łiovirin eblwan un fa ízwin-2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      because be-2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      * good →
      you win because you are good
    • Łiovirin cës äisän fa ízwin-2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      but_now be.SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      -2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      * good →
      you win but now you are good


    "And" and "or" never trigger the subjunctive. Other conjunctions like "if" or "whatever" can, depending on the context.

    [top]Interrogations


    Just like prepositions, interrogatives are postposed to the verb.

    • In weis kadyn?have=2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      cat<ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      >-PLPlural (number)
      more than one/few
      how_many? →
      how many cats do you have?


    In yes/no interrogations, an interrogative auxiliary will be used, triggering the subjunctive in the process (just like any auxiliary).

    • Zynyn én wei?QInterrogative
      question
      -2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      have=SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
      desired or possible events
      -2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      cat<ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      >?
      do you have a cat?


    Note: another auxiliary, fen, replaces zyn for formal situations.

    Alternatively, a z- prefix can be added to the verb.

    • Zin wei?QInterrogative
      question
      -have=2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      cat<ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      >?
      do you have a cat?


    The z- prefix can denote more generic interrogations (not just yes/no questions) if the context is clear enough.

    • Zin wei?QInterrogative
      question
      -have=2SSecond person singular (person)
      addressee (you)
      cat<ABSAbsolutive (case)
      TRANS object, INTR argument
      ?
      why do you have a cat? (for example)


    [top]Satellite framed verbs


    Satellite framed verbs are compound verbs, the same as English's ”give up”, ”hang on” etc.

    Only five adpositions can be used to form satellite framed verbs, in which case they are called ”verbal satellites”:
    • unk (”in”), expresses ”in”;
    • iw (”out”), expresses ”out”;
    • ant (”down”), expresses ”down”, ”below”, ”after”, ”behind”;
    • kgan (”up”), expresses ”up”, ”above”, ”before”, ”in front”;
    • ör (”back”), expresses ”back”, ”in return”, ”around”.


    Just like in English, satellite framed verbs may have a totally distinct meaning from their root. Derivatives are listed on the words' pages.

    The satellites can be separated from the corresponding conjugated verb as long as no ambiguity is created.
    Comments
    privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
    Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 31-Jan-23 07:53 | Δt: 199.692ms