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Sono verbal morphology
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Tense, aspect, mood, voice, evidentiality and other pretty things.
This public article was written by Thraamo, and last updated on 26 Jan 2019, 19:44.

[comments] Menu 1. Tense suffixes 2. Personal suffixes 3. Evidentiality suffixes 4. Mood prefixes 5. Aspect suffixes 6. Passive voice 7. Pragmatical particles / clitics
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'@' indicates the root

The affix slots are as follows:


[top]Tense suffixes

INF -oth (Is actually not a tense, but where else shall I mention it?)
PRES -o-
FUT -äk-
PST -ux-

[top]Personal suffixes

Every finite verb form must include a personal suffix that indicates whether the 1st, 2nd or 3rd person is the subject (SG, DU, PL and genus are not marked).
The suffixes are as follows:
1 -ta
2 -ti
3 -tu

[top]Evidentiality suffixes

There are three optional evidentiality suffixes in Sonontrul that are agglutinated after the personal suffix.
Inferential evidentiality denotes indirect information.
Hearsay evidentiality indicates reported information that may or may not be accurate.
Sensory evidentiality indicates information one has seen, heared, smelled or felt directly.

INFR -lle
HSY -rro
SENS -ma


[top]Mood prefixes

Irrealis mode indicates unreal events as well as wishes and is also used in polite requests (in combination with the POL particle/clitic).

IND unmarked
IRR le(p)-
INTERR m(o)-
IMP k(u)-
NEG o(t)-


[top]Aspect suffixes


SMPL unmarked
PROG -jo
PFV -sal


[top]Passive voice

To indicate passive voice, the particle eshta is used before the verb.

[top]Pragmatical particles / clitics

All the following little words (except for PASS) can be used as free morphemes or enclitics (i.e. suffixed to the word they modify).

POL engkwa
PEJ äxu
AMAR zi
MIR oija
VOC no
DIM she
AUG ong
PASS eshta

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