Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles ✎ Edit Article ✖ Delete Article » Journal
Usage of cases in Laefêvëši
5▲ 5 ▼ 0
This section explains and illustrates the usage of cases in Laefêvëši.
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 9 Sep 2017, 13:54.

[Public] ? ?
Menu 1. MAIN CASES 2. Nominative 3. Genitive 4. Dative 5. Accusative 6. Locative and instrumental 7. SUBCASES 8. Termiantive 9. Egressive 10. Elative 11. Delative 12. Abessive 13. Essive 14. Lative 15. Orientative 16. Illative 17. Benefactive 18. Sublative 19. Allative 20. Ablative 21. Prosecutive 22. Prolative 23. Superessive 24. Inessive 25. Adessive 26. Perlative 27. Apudessive 28. Postessive 29. Temporal 30. Instrumental-comitative 31. Antessive 32. ADDITIONAL CASES 33. Partitive 34. Negative partitive 35. Equative 36. Semblative 37. Translative There are 35 cases in  Laefêvëši (outdated), which are divided into several categories according to case hierarchy. See the article on case forms for more information on this (whenever I get around to writing it; this one is easier because it doesn't include tables).

The article firstly covers the basic (or main) cases, followed by subcases and additional cases.

[edit] [top]MAIN CASES

[edit] [top]Nominative

Nominative is used as:
  1. The subject of a sentence (or of the action or state):
    Ao maitta. ‘The sun shines.’

  2. A complement after linking verbs like alaj ‘to be’ (when used a copula, the short forms are usually used), and the verbs nalaj and našlaj ‘to become’ (as a modal verb, našlaj also means ‘to succeed/manage’), klasviej ‘to be named’, naiviej ‘to be called’, klasvaej ‘to be surnamed’:
    Oria lás deist. ‘The dolphin is a mammal.’
    Nallein teanie. ‘You two became friends.’
    Naitjare Iroi. ‘My name is Irói. / I’m called Irói.’

  3. A noun in apposition (usually a title) to various generic words such as nar ‘book’, deiki ‘chapter’, etc., which may be in any of the cases:
    Nareu ‘Šiili ištar’ niounnae. ‘I read the book “The Blue Dragonfly” a long time ago.’

  4. Used after certain numerals (see the section on numerals for more information), provided the numerals are used attributively:
    sa lâl ‘one flower’
    vrâ minie ‘two worlds’

[edit] [top]Genitive

Genitive is used as:
  1. The subject of the negated verb alaj ‘to be’ when it is used a full lexical verb (and not as a copular verb):
    Ansida kallas htanaj. ‘Ansi isn’t at home.’

  2. The direct object of a negated transitive verb:
    Lallake rikau. ‘I don’t see the house.’
    Kenna narau. ‘I don’t have the book.’

  3. The case governed by certain verbs (usually reflexive verbs or reflexive in meaning):
    Iroi hkialjasse jaþas. ‘Irói is afraid of snakes.’

  4. The logical subject of the verbs zyndlaj (ipfv.) and zylaj (pfv.) ‘to run out of’, and vjezylaj ‘to be short of, not have enough of’:
    Eaida nø vjezyllas. ‘We’re short of water.’
    Þierau nø zyllës. ‘We’ve run out of food.’

  5. The measured noun after certain numerals (see the section on numerals), nouns and adverbs denoting a measure or amount:
    ðast eaida ‘a glass of water’
    lue aisas ‘five songs’
    warij altusas ‘a lot of days’

  6. Various relationships between one noun group and another, especially possession, authorship, connection, belonging:
    • Possession and authorship are normally indicated by a possessive adjective, rather than the genitive, formed from the noun (see the section on possessive adjectives):
      môvairi klas ‘the actor’s name’
      Ansiiri nar ‘Ánsi’s book’

    • However, it the noun is qualified by an attributive adjective (qualitative adjective) or a possessive pronoun when used in its full or short forms (if the clitic form of the possessive pronoun is used, then the noun can be formed into a possessive adjective), or if a name is used with a surname, or if a possessive adjective cannot be formed from a noun, then the genitive is used:
      rik sourta teanau (full form) – sjótteaniri rik (clitic form) ‘my friend’s house’
      nar Ansida Javanau ‘Ansi Javan’s book’

    • If possession is not of one person in particular but very general, it may be indicated by the use of the genitive:
      waif neonjas ‘dreams of students’

      Such phrases can also be translated with relative adjectives in -ili. The difference is that the genitive construction emphasises the noun in genitive, whereas the adjectival construction emphasises the noun:
      neonjili waif ‘dreams of students / student(s) dreams’ (the emphasis is now on ‘dreams’)

    • It should be noted that the above examples (a to c) allow for another construction – namely using the egressive instead of the genitive. See the section on egressive for more information about this.

    • Belonging and other relationships (part of, type of, subject or object of a verbal noun) are also indicated by the genitive:
      hamnaj sasas ‘the colour of blossoms’
      nionoi naras ‘(the) reading (of) books’

  7. The case governed by certain adjectives:
    lûisi šian ‘full of joy / filled with joy’

  8. An adverbial phrase of time or manner:
    Noatjaure sušintau. ‘I return in April.’

    An alternative to the genitive with adverbial phrases of time is inessive, used especially when emphasising the time. See the section on inessive for more information.

  9. A descriptive attribute qualified by an adjective (either in its full form or in its clitic form) following the verb álaj ‘to be’ (copula):
    Alän lá maista sonniljau.Alën lá máissónniljau. ‘I’m in a good mood today.’

[edit] [top]Dative

Dative is used as:
  1. The indirect object of (di)transitive verbs, i.e. the person for whom the action is performed, the recipient:
    Vettai si nareu. ‘I gave you the book.’Sríu vettai nareu. ‘I gave the book to you.’
    Sannai jø vieseu. ‘I told them the tale.’
    Nareu gyttai teaniu. ‘I lent the book to a friend.’

  2. The direct object of certain verbs and the verbal nouns derived from those verbs:
    šânvaj winadi ‘to rule a country’
    šânnoi winadi ‘(the) ruling (of) a country’

  3. The logical subject of certain impersonal constructions denoting a state of mind, feeling or attitude:
    Tenjasse vi. ‘I’m sleepy.’ (Literally: ‘It sleeps to me.’)

  4. The logical subject of certain verbs used reflexively and impersonally:
    Ansidi waitjaisse iriare. ‘Ánsi dreamt about a dragon.’ (Lit.: ‘To Ánsi it dreamt on a dragon.’)

[edit] [top]Accusative

Accusative is used as:
  1. The direct object of a transitive verb:
    Lalla rikeu. ‘I see the house.’
    Enno nares. ‘We have books.’

  2. The logical subject in certain impersonal constructions:
    Tîmōde yrtias. ‘Tîmō is cold.’ (Literally: *‘It colds to Tîmō.’)

  3. Adverbial phrases of time and duration (usually in combination with adjectives like ‘every’, ‘each’, ‘all’, ‘whole’, etc., even if the adjectives are used in their clitic forms):
    Riva hjannana faullo erode.Riva hjannana eronǿfeu. ‘Spring arrives every year.’

  4. For expressing cost, weight and measure when preceded by a numeral that requires nominative (see the section on numbers):
    Kâl døisás lia urava. ‘The tree is three metres high.’

[edit] [top]Locative and instrumental

Locative and instrumental are both used with prepositions only (both of them are often referred to as the prepositional cases) – they cannot be used without one.

[edit] [top]SUBCASES

[edit] [top]Termiantive

Terminative indicates:
  1. Movement to(wards) or as far as an object, or an end point in space:
    Anna sodo lêala. ‘I’ll accompany you to the town.’ (Lit.: ‘I’ll go with you up to the town.’)

  2. The end point in time or until a point in time:
    Lue sevalla lás. ‘It’s five to twelve.’

[edit] [top]Egressive

Egressive indicates:
  1. Movement away from an object or person, or distance from an object (in combination with certain adverbs of place):
    Noatjaire teanan. ‘I returned from my friend’s.’
    nêjs Yhtelēne ‘away from Whaletown’

  2. Separation from an object:
    skevij tvûde eaina ‘to separate oil from water’

  3. Choice or selection from among:
    san dantajn ‘one of the wolves’

  4. Origin or starting point of something:
    sient Ansina ‘a letter from Ánsi’

  5. Possession or authorship, a replacement for possessive genitive and possessive adjectives:
    Ansiiri narnar Ansina ‘Ánsi’s book’ or ‘the book of Ansi’
    sjótteaniri rikrik sousta teanaurik sjótteanan ‘my friend’s house’ or ‘the house of my friend’

    Because the genitive can often be interpreted in two ways, the egressive is used to clarify the meaning. Without any context, a phrase like skûks neonjas ‘the accusations of the students’ (using genitive) can be interpreted as 1) the students being accused of something, or 2) the students are the ones accusing someone else of something. Using the egressive in that phrase, i.e. skûks neonjajn, the message becomes clear: the students are the ones accusing someone of something. As a result, the genitive would usually be interpreted as the students being accused of something.

  6. The object of which something is part:
    hait rikan ‘the key of/to the house’

  7. The starting point in time:
    zjoltánu ‘since Monday’

  8. The date when something was published (can be replaced by a possessive adjective sometimes):
    jacient zjoltánu ‘Monday’s newspaper’ (with a possessive adjective: zjoltíri jacient)

  9. The physical and emotional cause of something (this usage overlaps with prolative):
    žeí glêran ‘a knife wound / a wound by knife’
    nølaj kôatan ‘to weep with pain’
    Vata ti mâtjossa šaenan. ‘His eyes gleam with happiness.’

Terminative and egressive are often used together to denote the starting and finishing point of a movement or time, or the distance between two points:
luenna lêjalla ‘from five to eight’
Yhtelēna Uellēla ‘from Whaletown to Rivertown’

[edit] [top]Elative

Elative indicates:
  1. Movement out of something or from something (opposite to into, or illative):
    Annoi lêata neþejl. ‘We went from the town to the hills.’

    This construction is also used with illative to indicate the repeated starting and finishing points of a movement:
    jokota jokole ‘from room to room’

  2. The material or the source something is made out of:
    laix eamat ‘a stone wall’ (Lit.: ‘a wall [made] from stone’)

    Sometimes such a structure can be replaced by an adjective and a noun:
    laix eamateamisi laix ‘a stone wall’

  3. A temporal starting point (often used with an adjective):
    skøina annyðat ‘memories from the past’

    This construction is also used with illative to indicate the repeated starting and finishing points of an action:
    erota eróle ‘from year to year, year by year’

  4. The emotional cause of something (but not the physical cause):
    nølaj kôatat ‘to weep with pain’ [because of emotional pain]

[edit] [top]Delative

Delative indicates:
  1. Movement down from, from, or off something (opposite to onto, or sublative):
    Nior čattais kâlak. ‘The kid fell from the tree.’

    This construction is also used with sublative to indicate the repeated starting and finishing points of a movement:
    kâlaku kâler ‘from a tree to a tree’

[edit] [top]Abessive

Abessive indicates:
  1. The absence or lack of something:
    nontaþ ‘without work’

[edit] [top]Essive

Essive indicates:
  1. The duration of time (it is used as a temporal case only):
    rjêhtah ‘during [someone’s] youth’

    It may sometimes overlap with inessive but with essive the duration of the period is stressed.

    Essive is often used with names (cannot be used with inessive in this meaning):
    Ansiha ‘during the time of Ansi’

[edit] [top]Lative

Lative indicates:
  1. The person or object towards which a movement is made (the subject must be animate):
    Anna nevantik. ‘I’m going to the teacher.’
    Ŋiatjaire vatraki. ‘I turned to(wards) the window.’

  2. Addition or supplementation:
    iʒon fjêlik ‘a contribution to peace’

  3. Membership of a group:
    Zjo šainnas deistik. ‘The tiger belongs to the mammals.’

  4. Purpose or intention with weather phenomena:
    ōaiki ‘[getting ready] to rain’

  5. Temporal approach (used interchangeably with orientative):
    Nont îttas mâiki. ‘The work is coming to an end.’

[edit] [top]Orientative

Orientative indicates:
  1. Motion towards something – similar to lative, but usually indicates a more general direction towards:
    avaj maltiš ‘to go towards the north’
    lalaj litiši ‘to look towards the shore’

  2. Resistance, enmity, opposition:
    îvij fjêliš ‘to go against peace’

  3. Intention to avoid something negative:
    lâl kôatiš ‘a flower against pain’

  4. Temporal approach (used interchangeably with lative):
    Hjannau soraniš. ‘I arrive towards the evening.’

[edit] [top]Illative

Illative indicates:
  1. Movement into something (opposite to out of, or elative):
    Anna lêale. ‘I’m going to town.’
    Eam čattais eaile. ‘The stone fell into the water.’

  2. The target of an action:
    kuavij ðastel ‘to pour into a glass’

  3. The place where some state or characteristic occurs:
    wašisi vôgle ‘red in the face’

  4. The object towards which an emotion is directed:
    dvialaj leitel ‘to fall in love with a boy/girl’

  5. A change from one state to another (usually in combination with egressive):
    Vair lêkkiais kâhamel. ‘Summer turned to autumn.’
    jovvanšëvij iŋgläšita laefêvëšile ‘to translate from English to Laefêvëši’

    Using illative in this sense requires a verb of change. It is an alternative to translative where no verb is really needed:
    Vair kâhamar. ‘Summer turned to autumn.’
    iŋgläšita laefêvëširai ‘to translate from English to Laefêvëši’

  6. Inclusion within a sphere, group or object:
    Poli šainnaksi trēssienel. ‘This doesn’t belong to mathematics.’

  7. In combination with the verb ksoulaj ‘to think’ when it means ‘to ponder’:
    ksoulaj žîtel ‘to ponder on the problem’

[edit] [top]Benefactive

Benefactive indicates:
  1. The purpose for which something is designed or for which an action is performed:
    Nareu skiennalai Ansine. ‘I wrote the book for Ánsi.’

  2. The destination of some form of transport:
    hyhg Uellēne ‘the ship for Rivertown’

  3. The contact with an object as a result of physical action:
    ukkëvij neiren ‘to drag/pull by the hand’

  4. The amount of time taken to complete an action:
    Annois hlanen. ‘They went [eg. on holiday] for a month.’

  5. The reason why something happens (usually in a negative sense):
    Peine si ƕennataun. ‘You’ll be sorry for this.’

  6. Some quantity, measure or amount:
    Nareu si gyttai lëtten. ‘I lent you the book for a day.’

  7. Substitution:
    laiblaj naren ‘to exchange for a book’

[edit] [top]Sublative

Sublative indicates:
  1. Movement onto something (opposite to ‘down from’, i.e. delative):
    fevij ƕigre ‘to put on the bed’

  2. The target of an action or noun:
    sôft mînyter ‘the door to the balcony’

  3. Transfer or transition to another position or state:
    irisak sainer ‘from animal[s] to human[s]’

  4. The aim of an intellectual, emotional or physical activity:
    solaj seffoner ‘to think of the future’

  5. The frequency or repetition of an action within temporal units that follow one another regularly:
    adden erore ‘twice a year’

  6. The cause of a response:
    onovaj ynser ‘to start on the signal’

[edit] [top]Allative

Allative indicates:
  1. Movement towards and contact with something that is an obstruction or hindrance, or movement to within a very close distance of something:
    fevij salveu laihpe ‘to put/place the bike against the wall’

  2. The loss of something positive or valuable:
    Ûssa lás eilpe. ‘The cow has no milk. / The cow lost its milk.’

[edit] [top]Ablative

Ablative indicates:
  1. The object which someone goes to get:
    Anna narej. ‘I’m going to get the book.’
    Anna Ansise. ‘I’m going to collect Ansi.’

  2. A distributive meaning:
    Hjannoro san sanej. ‘Come one by one.’

[edit] [top]Prosecutive

Prosecutive indicates:
  1. Movement across or over without obstruction:
    avaj settate ‘to go across the road’

  2. Movement towards another side:
    hôvij asammet ‘to jump across/over a stream’

  3. Movement thought or via a place when travelling somewhere (interchangeable with prolative):
    estvij Yhtelēle Úellēte ‘to travel to Whaletown via/through Rivertown’

  4. The time during which an event or action takes place:
    tevaj endete ‘to sleep during the winter’

  5. The time after which something will be done:
    Hjanna erote. ‘I arrive in a month.’

[edit] [top]Prolative

Prolative indicates:
  1. Movement through something, usually implying there is some sort of obstruction:
    loivaj râkek ‘to breathe through the nose’

  2. Movement thought or via a place when travelling somewhere (interchangeable with prosecutive):
    estvij Yhtelēle Uellēke ‘to travel to Whaletown via/through Rivertown’

  3. The physical or emotional cause of something – used in passive sentences to indicate the subject of an action in an active sentence (corresponds to English ‘by’ in passive sentences):
    Sient skiensáis Ansike. ‘The letter was written by Ánsi.’ (Lit.: ‘The letter was written through Ansi.’)

[edit] [top]Superessive

Superessive indicates:
  1. Location on or on top of something:
    lânur ‘on the table’

  2. The activity taking place when used with the verb alaj ‘to be’ and certain other verbs:
    alaj nantur ‘to be on a hunt / to be out hunting’

  3. The means with which an action is carried out – mainly connected when cooking or baking when it is done on a surface of something rather than inside of something:
    girvij tvûru ‘to cook/fry with oil’

  4. The object about which something is said (corresponds to English ‘about’ or ‘on’):
    nar irisurs ‘a book about/on animals’

[edit] [top]Inessive

Inessive indicates:
  1. Location in or inside of something:
    rikul ‘in the house’

  2. Membership of a body or group:
    sykylu ‘in the family’

  3. The circumstances in which an action takes place:
    novij fjyrrul ‘to work in the cold’

  4. The sphere to which the verbal action is limited, or the condition or state where the verbal action takes place:
    alaj vratalu ‘to be in danger’

  5. The time when used with weeks, months, years, centuries, seasons, specific periods in time, stages in life or a stage in an activity or event:
    ihanantul ‘in January’
    ritvul ‘in the spring’
    seffonul ‘in the future’

    Genitive can also be used with months – when used with inessive, the month is emphasised. Similarly, the adverbial forms of the seasons are more commonly used than the inessive. The use may sometimes overlap with essive, especially when names are included or specific periods in time.

[edit] [top]Adessive

Adessive indicates:
  1. The place where an action occurs or immediate spatial proximity or contact; or the physical circumstances which accompany an action; often used with human objects:
    rivaj viellantum ‘to live with one’s parents’
    teanum ‘at [my] friend’s’
    Ansimu ‘at Ansi’s’

  2. The coincidence in time (often interchangeable with the temporal case, especially when used with a temporal expression):
    sorvimu ‘at dinner’

  3. A concessive meaning:
    eunujm ‘despite the money’

[edit] [top]Perlative

Perlative indicates:
  1. Intermediate movement across or over a surface, or movement along the length of something:
    folaj kâlantus ‘to walk in/around the forest’
    Asam ellalas wērēti. ‘The stream flows/runs thought the valley.’

  2. The location at various points (used in plural):
    Les unnas littissu. ‘Snow lies on the mountains.’ (Lit.: ‘Snow lies across the mountains.’)

  3. The object which a verbal action seeks to reach or the purpose for which the action is performed:
    revij sëresu ‘to reach for the stick’

  4. The means by which an action is carried out:
    htøvij siestus ‘to send by post’

  5. The manner in which an action is carried out:
    tuaelus ‘little by little’
    sourus ‘according to me / by me’

  6. The object of a mental or emotional activity:
    aks yvynus ‘a desire/wish for knowledge’

  7. A criteria for judgement:
    styvaj jômus ‘to recognise by/from one’s voice’

  8. The source of a sense or perception:
    Kîttas rainujs. ‘It stinks of fish.

[edit] [top]Apudessive

Apudessive indicates:
  1. The place where an action occurs or immediate special proximity or contact:
    laihpu ‘by the wall’
    kâlup ‘beside the tree’

[edit] [top]Postessive

Postessive indicates:
  1. The time which is followed by an event or action:
    sorvihu ‘after dinner’
    Alëttuh hjannas tus. ‘After the day comes the night.’

[edit] [top]Temporal

Temporal indicates:
  1. The time when or at what time:
    sakku ‘at one [o’clock]’
    liakku ‘at three [o’clock]’
    jaksesieku ‘at one o’clock’ (Lit.: ‘at the first hour’)

    The last construction is very rarely used. As seen in the above examples, to specify an hour, a cardinal number is used with the plural suffix (even for one and two).

  2. Recurrent points in time (often corresponds to English ‘on’):
    zjoltúk ‘on Mondays’

  3. Parts of the days (often corresponds to English ‘at’):
    awēðuk ‘at sunset’

[edit] [top]Instrumental-comitative

Instrumental-comitative (or instcomitative) indicates:
  1. The means, instrument, tool or resource with which an action is carried out:
    sienlaj sieggedo ‘to write with a pen’

  2. The manner in which an action is carried out:
    lovij váijômot ‘to talk in a pleasant voice’

  3. The presence of a quality or property, or accompaniment:
    kvivij teanot ‘to watch [something] with a friend’
    Hjannai launtot. ‘I arrived by plane.’ (Lit.: ‘I arrived with a plane.’)

[edit] [top]Antessive

Antessive indicates:
  1. Precedence or anteriority in time:
    soranol ‘before evening’
    kâhamol ‘before autumn’
    Hjannai Ansilo. ‘I arrived before Ansi.’


[edit] [top]Partitive

Partitive is used:
  1. In singular to mean ’some’, ‘part’ or ‘little/a bit’:
    Vettar vi eaidei. ‘Give me some water!’
    altussea ‘part of the day’

    When partitive is used after transitive verbs that usually require another case, the other case may be suffixed after the partitive. If the required case is accusative, then it is usually omitted, but if the required case is some other case, then it is usually added:
    Čettai eaideile. ‘I fell into some/a bit of water.’
    Niounnai narea.Niounnai nareade. ‘I read part of the book.’

  2. In dual to mean ‘half’:
    lêandei ‘half the town’
    hlanēn ‘half a month’

  3. In plural to mean ‘some’ or ‘a few’:
    narēs ‘some/a few books’

    The partitive ‘some’ is quantifying, implying an unspecific (small) quantity. It should not be mistaken for the unspecified ‘some’ (which has the meaning of ‘a/an’).

[edit] [top]Negative partitive

Negative partitive (or nepartitive) is used:
  1. To mean ‘no’ or ‘none’ (when they are used as premodifiers):
    narenka ‘no book’narienki ‘no (two) books’narenksi ‘no books’
    Kenna vihynnei. ‘I have no pictures.’ (Lit.: ‘I don’t have no pictures.’)
    Jubinkei sa lallauksi. ‘No person is going to see you.’ (Lit.: ‘No person is not going to see you.’)

Similar to the partitive, the nepartitive can combine with other cases.

[edit] [top]Equative

Equative denotes:
  1. Comparison or likening (corresponds to English ‘as’ or ‘like’) in simple sentences:
    gelaj raininti ‘to swim like a fish’

  2. Comparison in comparative sentences (‘as X as Y’):
    Jâ šán døisáis lindinti. ‘He was as tall as a mountain.’

    Such comparisons can often omit šan ‘as’:
    Jâ døisáis lindinti. ‘He was tall as a mountain.’

    It is also possible to add the equative suffix to both words that are being compared:
    Jâ láis døinti lindinti. ‘He was as tall as a mountain.’

  3. Comparison with an adjective in the comparative degree:
    wariski lapesint ‘bigger than an ocean’

  4. Unification of two entities (usually corresponds to English ‘both X and Y’ or ‘X and Y alike’):
    Šán ʒiaf dantinci rinnos ján. ‘Both bears and wolves live here.’

    Similarly to the previous use, it is possible to add the equative suffix to both entities:
    Ʒianni dántinci rinnos ján. ‘Both bears and wolves live here.’

  5. Emphasising someone or something (corresponds to English ‘none other than’); the first part, ‘none other’, requires negative partitive, of course:
    Laelenka bautinti hjannais. ‘None other than the king arrived.’

Equative can also combine with other cases.

[edit] [top]Semblative

Semblative denotes:
  1. The function of an entity:
    Ksynno te nevantēnti. ‘We know him as a teacher.’
    Nullain te eamēnt. ‘You threw it as a stone.’

    Distinguishing between equative and semblative is very important because as similar as they seem to be in some cases, they can convey a big difference in meaning sometimes. Compare the two following sentences:
    • Lallai se sainenka.
    • Lallai se sainēnti.

    They both translate to ‘I see you as a human’, but there is a significant difference between them; namely, whom ‘human’ refers to. In the first sentence, ‘human’ refers to the speaker, so ‘I see you as if I am a human’ – this is conveyed by the use of the equative. In the second sentence, however, ‘human’ refers to the addressee, so ‘I see you as if you are a human,’ which is indicated by the use of the semblative.

[edit] [top]Translative

Translative indicates:
  1. A change from one state to another (does not require a verb):
    Vair kâhamar. ‘Summer turned to autumn.’
    iŋgläšita laefêvëširai ‘to translate from English to Laefêvëši’

    It is an alternative to illative, which requires a verb:
    Vair lêkkiais kâhamel. ‘Summer turned to autumn.’
    jovvanšëvij iŋgläšita laefêvëšile ‘to translate from English to Laefêvëši’

    Of course, it is possible to use a verb with translative as well, but it is seen as an unnecessary redundancy, and often even as bad style. It is more natural then to use illative than translative.

  2. A future change in the state of a noun (but not used for past) – it is essentially a contraction of a temporal clause:
    Þadar allau nenant. ‘When I grow up I’m going to be a teacher.’

    A similar meaning can be conveyed by using the equative, þadint allau nenant ‘as an adult I’m going to be a teacher’, but the translative emphasises the change or the future time.
✎ Edit Article ✖ Delete Article
[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 09-Sep-17 14:00 [Deactivated User]
@[Deactivated User] It took me quite a while to write this, yeah. HTML formatting is a pain.
[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 09-Sep-17 13:53 [Deactivated User]
Seems the hours of intent article-editing pay finally off :P
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 31-Jan-23 07:47 | Δt: 212.1069ms